Theory of Soft Matter


An Introduction to Modeling Approaches of Active Matter
L. Hecht; J. C. Ureña; B. Liebchen C (opens in new tab)

Mutation induced infection waves in diseases like COVID-19
F. J. Schwarzendahl C; J. Grauer; B. Liebchen; H. Löwen
DOI: 10.1101/2021.07.06.21260067


Interactions in Active Colloids (Topical Review)
B. Liebchen C, A. K. Mukhopadhyay

Collective self-optimization of communicating active particles
A. Zampetaki, B. Liebchen C, A. Ivlev, H. Löwen
accepted in Proceeding of the National Academy of Science (2021)

Active Droploids
J. Grauer; F. Schmidt; J. Pineda; B. Midtvedt, H. Löwen; G. Volpe; B. Liebchenc
Nature Communications, 12, 6005 (2021)
DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-26319-3
(see also,News of Technical University of Darmstadt,, ,,, , and

Non-monotonic Speed-dependence of Microswimmers on Wall Distance
M. Heidari c, F. Jakob, B. Liebchen; R. von Klitzing
Soft Matter, 17, 9428 (2021)
DOI: 10.1039/D1SM01277K

Shaping the gradients driving phoretic micro-swimmers: influence of swimming speed, budget of carbonic acid and environment
N. Möllerc; B. Liebchen; T. Palberg
The European Physical Journal E 44, 1 (2021)
DOI: 10.1140/epje/s10189-021-00026-9

Hydrodynamics can determine the optimal route for microswimmer navigation
A. Daddi-Moussa-Ider; H. Löwen; B. Liebchenc
Communications Physics, 4, 1 (2021)
DOI: 10.1038/s42005-021-00522-6

MD simulations of charged binary mixtures reveal a generic relation between high- and low-temperature behavior
L. Hechtc; R. Horstmann; B. Liebchen; M. Vogel
Journal of Chemicals Physics; 154, 024501 (2021)
DOI: 10.1063/5.0031417


Strategic spatiotemporal vaccine distribution increases the survival rate in an infectious disease like Covid-19
J. Grauer; H. Löwen; B. Liebchenc
Scientific Reports, 10, 1 (2020)
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-78447-3
(See also the article in Bloomberg and the Physik-Journal-Brennpunkt by G. Gompper (opens in new tab))

Active Assembly of Spheroidal Photocatalytic BiVO4 Microswimmers
S. Heckel; J. Grauer; M. Semmler; T. Gemming; H. Löwen; B. Liebchen; J. Simmchenc
Langmuir, 36, 12473 (2020)
DOI: 10.1021/acs.langmuir.0c01568 (opens in new tab)

Actomyosin Contraction Induces In-Bulk Motility of Cells and Droplets
T. Le Goff; B. Liebchen; D. Marenduzzoc
Biophysical Journal, 119, 1025 (2020)
DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2020.06.029 (opens in new tab)

Realization of a motility-trap for active particles
S. Jahanshahi; C. Lozano; B. Liebchen; H. Löwen; C. Bechingerc
Communications Physics, 3, 1 (2020)
DOI: 10.1038/s42005-020-0393-4 (opens in new tab)

Swarm Hunting and Cluster Ejections in Chemically Communicating Active Mixtures
J. Grauer; H. Löwen; A. Be’er; B. Liebchenc
Scientific Reports, 10, 1 (2020)
DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-62324-0 (opens in new tab)

Clustering-induced velocity-reversals of active colloids mixed with passive particles
F. Hauke; H. Löwen; B. Liebchenc
The Journal of Chemical Physics,152, 014903 (2020)
DOI: 10.1063/1.5128641 (opens in new tab)


Motility-Induced Temperature Difference in Coexisting Phases
S. Mandalc; B. Liebchenc; H. Löwenc
Physical Review Letters, 123, 228001 (2019)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.228001 (opens in new tab)

Activity induced synchronization: From mutual flocking to chiral self-sorting
D. Levis*c; I. Pagonabarraga; B. Liebchen*c
Physical Review Research,1, 023026 (2019)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevResearch.1.023026 (opens in new tab)

Optimal navigation strategies for active particles
B. Liebchen,*c ; H. Löwen*c
Europhysics Letters,127, 34003 (2019)
DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/127/34003 (opens in new tab)

Modelling Chemotaxis of Microswimmers: From Individual to Collective Behavior (Book Chapter)
B. Liebchen; H. Löwen
Chemical Kinetics: Beyond The Textbook, London, World Scientific Publishing Europe, 493 (2019)
DOI: 10.1142/9781786347015_0020 (opens in new tab)

Theory of active particle penetration through a planar elastic membrane
A. Daddi-Moussa-Iderc; B. Liebchen; A.M. Menze; H. Löwenc
New Journal of Physics, 21 , 083014 (2019)
DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/ab35d2 (opens in new tab)

Competing Timescales Lead to Oscillations in Shear-Thickening Suspensions
J. A. Richardsc; J. R. Royer; B. Liebchen; B. M. Guy; W. C. K. Poon
Physical Review Letters, 123, 038004 (2019)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.123.038004 (opens in new tab)

Simultaneous Phase Separation and Pattern Formation in Chiral Active Mixtures
D. Levisc; B. Liebchen
Physical Review E, 100, 012406 (2019)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.100.012406 (opens in new tab)

Propagating density spikes in light-powered motility-ratchets
C. Lozano*; B. Liebchen*c ; B. ten Hagen*; C. Bechinger; H. Löwen
Soft Matter, 15, 5185 (2019)
DOI: 10.1039/C9SM00727J (opens in new tab)
(On the front cover) (opens in new tab)

Light-controlled Assembly of Active Colloidal Molecules
F. Schmidt*; B. Liebchen*; H. Löwenc; G. Volpec
Journal of Chemical Physics, 150, 094905 (2019)
DOI: 10.1063/1.5079861 (opens in new tab)

Membrane Penetration and Trapping of an Active Particle
A. Daddi-Moussa-Iderc; S. Goh; B. Liebchen; C. Hoell; A.J.T.M. Mathijssen; F. Guzmán-Lastra; C. Scholz; A.M. Menzel; H. Löwenc ;
Journal of Chemical Physics, 150, 064906 (2019)
DOI: 10.1063/1.5080807 (opens in new tab)

Which Interactions Dominate in Active Colloids?
B. Liebchenc; H. Löwen
Journal of Chemical Physics, 150, 061102 (2019)
DOI: 10.1063/1.5082284 (opens in new tab)

Taming Polar Active Matter with Moving Substrates: Directed Transport and Counterpropagating Macrobands
A. Zampetakic; P. Schmelcher; H. Löwen; B. Liebchenc
New Journal of Physics, 21 , 013023 (2019)
DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/aaf776 (opens in new tab)


Unraveling Modular Microswimmers: From Self-Assembly to Ion-Exchange-Driven Motors
B. Liebchenc; R. Niuc; T. Palberg; H. Löwen
Physical Review E, 98 , 052610 (2018)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.98.052610 (opens in new tab)

Synthetic Chemotaxis and Collective Behavior in Active Matter
B. Liebchenc; H. Löwenc
Accounts of Chemical Research, 51, 2982, (2018)
DOI: 10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00215 (opens in new tab)

Dimensional coupling-induced current reversal in two-dimensional driven lattices
A.K. Mukhopadhyayc; T. Xiec; B. Liebchen c; P. Schmelcherc
Physical Review E, 97, 050202 (2018)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.97.050202 (opens in new tab)

Simultaneous control of multi-species particle transport and segregation in driven lattices
A.K. Mukhopadhyay c; B. Liebchenc; P. Schmelcherc
Physical Review Letters, 120, 218002 (2018)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.218002 (opens in new tab)

Viscotaxis: microswimmer navigation in viscosity gradients
B. Liebchenc; P. Monderkamp; B. ten Hagen; H. Löwen
Physical Review Letters, 120, 208002 (2018)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.120.208002 (opens in new tab)
(selected as editor´s choice)
see the press release in physicsworld: Physicists show how bactteria swim towards regions of higher viscosity (opens in new tab)

Micro-flock patterns and macro-clusters in chiral active Brownian disks
D. Levisc; B. Liebchen
Journal of Physics Condensed Matter, 30, 084001 (2018)
DOI: 10.1088/1361-648X/aaa5ec, (opens in new tab)


Collective Behavior of Chiral Active Matter: Pattern Formation and Enhanced Flocking
B. Liebchen*c; D. Levis*c
Physical Review Letters, 119, 058002 (2017)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.119.058002 (opens in new tab)
see the press release: A study describes the collective motion of rotating particals applicable to biological systems (opens in new tab)

Motility of active nematic films driven by "active anchoring''
M.L. Blow; M. Aqil; B. Liebchen; D. Marenduzzoc
Soft Matter,13, 6137 (2017)
DOI: 10.1039/c7sm00325k (opens in new tab)

Phoretic Interactions Generically Induce Dynamic Clusters and Wave Patterns in Active Colloids
B. Liebchenc; D. Marenduzzo; M.E.Cates
Physical Review Letters, 118, 268001 (2017)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.268001 (opens in new tab)

Ephemeral Protein Binding to DNA Shapes Stable Nuclear Bodies and Chromatin Domains
C.A. Brackley; B. Liebchen; D. Michieletto; F. Mouvet; P.R. Cook; D. Marenduzzoc
Biophysical Journal, 112, 1085 (2017)
DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2017.01.025 (opens in new tab)


Pattern Formation in Polymerising Actin Flocks: Spirals, Spots and Waves without Nonlinear Chemistry
T. Le Goffc; B. Liebchenc; D. Marenduzzo
Physical Review Letters, 117, 238002 (2016)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.238002 (opens in new tab)

Pattern Formation in Chemically Interacting Active Rotors with Self-propulsion
B. Liebchenc; M.E. Cates; D. Marenduzzo
Soft Matter 12, 7259 (2016)
DOI: 10.1039/C6SM01162D (opens in new tab)

Quench Dynamics of Two Coupled Zig-Zag Ion Chains
A. Klumppc; B. Liebchen; P. Schmelcher
Physical Letters A, 380, 2644 (2016)
DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2016.06.012 (opens in new tab)

Freezing, Accelerating, and Slowing Directed Currents in Real Time with Superimposed Driven Lattices
A.K. Mukhopadhyayc; B. Liebchenc; T. Wulf c; P. Schmelcherc
Phys. Rev. E 93, 052219 (2016)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.93.052219 (opens in new tab)


Clustering and Pattern Formation in Chemorepulsive Active Colloids
B. Liebchenc; D. Marenduzzoc; I. Pagonabarragac; M.E. Catesc
Physical Review Letters, 115, 258301 (2015)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.258301 (opens in new tab)

Interaction Induced Directed Transport in AC-driven Periodic Potentials
B. Liebchenc; P. Schmelcherc
New Journal of Physics, 17, 083011 (2015)
DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/17/8/083011 (opens in new tab)

Site-selective Particle Deposition in Periodically Driven Quantum Lattices
T. Wulfc; B. Liebchen; P. Schmelcherc
Physical Review A, 91, 043628 (2015)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.043628 (opens in new tab)

Excitation Dynamics of Interacting Rydberg Atoms in Small Lattices
G. Wuc; M. Kurz; B. Liebchen; P. Schmelcher
Physical Letters, A 379, 143 (2015)
DOI: 10.1016/j.physleta.2014.10.044 (opens in new tab)


Symmetries and Transport in Site-dependent Driven Quantum Lattices
T. Wulfc; C. Petri; B. Liebchen; P. Schmelcherc
Physical Review E, 90, 042913 (2014)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.042913 (opens in new tab)

Teilchendynamik fern vom Gleichgewicht
B. Liebchen; P. Schmelcherc
Physik in unserer Zeit, 45, 191 (2014)
DOI: 10.1002/piuz.201301366 (opens in new tab)

Spatiotemporal Oscillation Patterns in the Collective Relaxation Dynamics of Interacting Particles in Periodic Potentials
B. Liebchenc; P. Schmelcherc
Physical Review Letters, 112, 134102 (2014)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.134102 (opens in new tab)

Disorder Induced Regular Dynamics in Oscillating Lattices
T. Wulfc; B. Liebchen; P. Schmelcherc
Physical Review Letters, 112, 034101 (2014)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.034101 (opens in new tab)


Neutral Particle Focusing in Composite Driven Dissipative Billiards
B. Liebchenc; C. Petri; M. Krizanac; P. Schmelcher
Nonlinear Dynamics, 74, 319 (2013)
DOI: 10.1007/s11071-013-0971-z (opens in new tab)

Analysis of Resonant Population Transfer in Time-dependent Quantum Elliptical Billiards
J. Liss; B. Liebchenc; P. Schmelcherc
Physical Review E, 87, 012912 (2013)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.87.012912 (opens in new tab)


Interaction-induced Current-reversals in Driven Lattices
B. Liebchenc; F.K. Diakonosc; P. Schmelcherc
New Journal of Physics, 14, 103032 (2012)
DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/14/10/103032 (opens in new tab)

Analysis of Interface Conversion Processes of Ballistic and Diffusive Motion in Driven Superlattices
T. Wulfc; C. Petri; B. Liebchen; P. Schmelcherc
Physical Review E, 86, 016201 (2012)
DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.86.016201 (opens in new tab)


Resonant Population Transfer in the Time-dependent Quantum Elliptical Billiard
F. Lenz; B. Liebchenc; F.K. Diakonos; P. Schmelcherc
New Journal of Physics, 13, 103019 (2011)
DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/13/10/103019 (opens in new tab)

Phase Space Interpretation of Exponential Fermi Acceleration
B. Liebchenc; R. Büchner; C. Petri; F.K. Diakonos; F. Lenz; P. Schmelcherc
New Journal of Physics, 13, 093039 (2011)
DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/94/40001 (opens in new tab)

Formation of Density Waves via Interface Conversion of Ballistic and Diffusive motion
C. Petri; F. Lenz; B. Liebchenc; F.K. Diakonos; P. Schmelcherc
Europhysics Letters, 95, 30005 (2011)
DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/95/30005 (opens in new tab)

Patterned Deposition of Particles in Spatiotemporally Driven Lattices
B. Liebchenc; C. Petri; F. Lenz; P. Schmelcherc
Europhysics Letters, 94, 40001 (2011)
DOI: 10.1209/0295-5075/94/40001 (opens in new tab)

* equal contribution

c corresponding author